Nations Unies

Les Nations Unies, au travers de l’UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disater Reduction) publient de nombreux documents en plusieurs langues sur la réduction des risques urbains, et tout particulièrement pour les risques liés aux changements climatiques. La notion de Resilient City est très présente, et plusieurs guides ont été publiés. On peut y trouver d’intéressants glossaires, que nous avons repris dans ce site, et de nombreux indicateurs de mesure et d’estimation des impacts du changement climatique. Malheureusement, la Méditerranée n’est pas considérée comme une région en soi, et il n’y a pas de spécificités méditerranéennes dans ces études.
UN-Habitat a aussi publié le rapport le plus complet sur les politiques urbaines en matière de changement climatique, que l’on peut considérer comme le standard dans ce domaine.

Cities and Climate Change Policy Directions - Global report



In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities ; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate – fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse.
The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general – a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge – far beyond climate change connections alone.
It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

Hubert Mazurek

UNISDR - Anual Report 2014


A complete program of actions on reduction of disaster, including climate change. A place is given to the concept of resilient cities.

Hubert Mazurek

UNISDR - Terminology


One terminology (Glossary) from UNISDR you can find in a lot of language

Hubert Mazurek


Approche locale et territoriale du changement climatique dans les Pays Arabes

PNUD - Meriem Houzir
Dec 2010

Hubert Mazurek

World Bank and OECD

Cities and Climate Change : an urgent agenda

World Bank


The Urban Development and Local Government Unit of the World Bank is pleased to present this first report on cities and climate change. The report discusses the link between climate change and cities, why cities should be concerned about climate change and adopt early preventative policies, and how the World Bank and other organizations can provide further support to cities on climate change issues.
The report is one in a series of activities that explore the nexus of cities and climate change. Others include a note on climate finance, the Mayors’ Task Force on Urban Poverty and Climate Change, the Urban Risk Assessment, and the Mayor’s Handbook
on Adaptation. The report provides a partial list of what some of the World Bank’s key partners are planning in this area as well, including OECD, ESMAP, C40, Clinton Climate Initiative, UNEP, UN-HABITAT, Metropolis, the Climate Group.

Hubert Mazurek

Cities and Climate Change ; Policy Perspectives

OECD - Bloomberg Philanthropies

Cities andClimate Change
National governments enabling local action.

This Policy Perspectives was jointly prepared by the OECD and Bloomberg Philanthropies as an input to the OECD Leaders Seminar with Michael R. Bloomberg, UN Special Envoy for Cities and Climate Change. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.

Hubert Mazurek

4º Turn down the heat. Confronting the new climat Normal

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank

Full Report

The data show that dramatic climate changes, heat and weather extremes are already impacting people, damaging crops and coastlines and putting food, water, and energy security at risk. Across the three regions studied in this report, record-breaking temperatures are occurring more frequently, rainfall has increased in intensity in some places, while drought-prone regions are getting dryer. In an overview of social vulnerability, the poor and underprivileged, as well as the elderly and children, are found to be often hit the hardest. There is growing evidence, that even with very ambitious mitigation action, warming close to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels by mid-century is already locked-in to the Earth’s atmospheric system and climate change impacts such as extreme heat events may now be unavoidable.1 If the planet continues warming to 4°C, climatic conditions, heat and other weather extremes considered highly unusual or unprecedented today would become the new climate normal—a world of increased risks and instability. The consequences for development would be severe as crop yields decline, water resources change, diseases move into new ranges, and sea levels rise. The task of promoting human development, of ending poverty, increasing global prosperity, and reducing global inequality will be very challenging in a 2°C world, but in a 4°C world there is serious doubt whether this can be achieved at all. Immediate steps are needed to help countries adapt to the climate impacts being felt today and the unavoidable consequences of a rapidly warming world. The benefits of strong, early action on climate change, action that follows clean, low carbon pathways and avoids locking in unsustainable growth strategies, far outweigh the costs. Many of the worst projected climate impacts could still be avoided by holding warming to below 2°C. But, the time to act is now.
This report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resources, ecosystem services and coastal vulnerability for affected populations.

The World Bank

4º Baissons la Chaleuur. Résumé Régional

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank

Moyen Orient et Afrique du Nord

The World Bank

4º Turn down the heat. Regional Summary

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank

Middle East and North Africa

The World Bank

Union Européenne

Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe

European Environment Agency

Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe
Challenges and opportunities for cities together with supportive national and European policies

This report …
… provides information to facilitate this multi-level European process and the effective participation of local governments. It complements a range of other studies and information sources, such as the European Climate Adaptation Information Platform CLIMATE-ADAPT, the forthcoming EEA reports on climate change impacts and on adaptation (due in autumn 2012), the handbook on limate-Friendly Cities (2011), published under the Hungarian EU presidency, among others listed later in the report.

Hubert Mazurek

Europeans’ attitudes towards climate change

European Union

Its focus is on :

  • Measuring the impact of the terminological differences between global warming and climate change on citizens’ perception.
  • Citizens’ perceptions of the seriousness of global warming / climate change.
  • The extent to which citizens feel informed about climate change.
  • Citizens’ attitudes towards climate change and ways of combating it.
  • Actions aimed at fighting climate change.
  • Targets for reducing emissions and increasing the share of renewable energy.
    This Eurobarometer survey was commissioned by the Directorate General for Communication of the European Commission, on behalf of the European Parliament and the European Commission. It was carried out by TNS opinion & social network between the 25th of March and the 4th of May 2008. The interviews were conducted among 30,170 citizens in the 27 Member States of the European Union, the three candidate countries for accession to the European Union (Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and in the Turkish Cypriot Community.

Hubert Mazurek

Resilient Cities

On trouve des guides dans la plupart des organismes internationaux et des programmes spécifiques de fondations privées.
Les Nations Unies (UNISDR) ont publié un guide pour faire une ville plus résiliente, qui se trouve dans presque toutes les langues.

How To Make Cities More Resilient A Handbook For Local Government Leaders

United Nations

How To Make Cities More Resilient
A Handbook For Local Government Leaders
A contribution to the global campaign 2010-2015
Making Cities Resilient – My City is Getting Ready !

This Handbook for Local Government Leaders provides mayors, governors, ouncillors and others with a generic framework for risk reduction and points to good practices and tools that are already being applied in different cities for that purpose. It responds to the following key questions : WHY building disaster resilience is beneficial ; WHAT kind of strategies and actions are required ; and HOW to go about the task. Because cities, towns and municipalities differ in size, social, economic and cultural profiles and exposure to risk, each one will approach the tasks differently.

Hubert Mazurek

Making Cities Resilient Report 2012


At the outset, the Campaign defined a resilient city as one where :
• Disasters are minimized because the population lives in homes and communities with organized services and infrastructure that adhere to sensible building codes ; without informal settlements built on flood plains or steep slopes because no other land is available.
• An inclusive, competent and accountable local government is concerned about sustainable urbanization and that commits the necessary resources to develop capacities to manage and organize itself before, during and after a natural hazard event.
• The local authorities and the population understand their risks and develop a shared, local information base on disaster losses, hazards and risks, including who is exposed and who is vulnerable.
• People are empowered to participate, decide and plan their city together with local authorities and value local and indigenous knowledge, capacities and resources.
• Steps are taken to anticipate and mitigate the impact of disasters, incorporating monitoring and early warning technologies to protect infrastructure, community assets and individuals, including their homes and possessions, cultural heritage, environmental and economic capital, and is able to minimize physical and social losses arising from extreme weather events, earthquakes or other natural or human- induced hazards.
• There is an ability to respond, implement immediate recovery strategies and quickly restore basic services to resume social, institutional and economic activity after such an event.
• An understanding exists that most of the above is also central to building resilience to adverse environmental changes, including climate change, in addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Hubert Mazurek

Informe Layman - Construir Ciudades resilientes directrices para la adaptación al cambio climático

LIFE/ACT - Union Europea

El proyecto ACT – Adaptación al Cambio Climático a Tiempo está financiado por la Comisión Europea dentro del Programa LIFE Environmental Policy and Governance, un instrumento surgido con el fin de contribuir a la actuación, actualización y desarrollo de la política y de la legislación comunitaria en materia medioambiental, contribuyendo de este modo al desarrollo sostenible.

Hubert Mazurek

Smart Cities

Quelques présentations des conceptions internationales de la Smart City

Building Smart Cities and Communities : European Innovation Partnership 2014-2020

Union Europea

A presentation on what means a Smart City in Europe

Hubert Mazurek


Proceedings of the 11th Ecocity World Summit, Abu Dhabi – UAE

Academic Committee The EcoCity World Summit 2015

Some contributions within three chapters :

  • Urban design for liveability and resilience
  • Urban systems, footprints and metabolism
  • Cities in balance with nature

Hubert Mazurek

International Ecocity Framework and Standards

Ecocity Builder

An initiative of Ecocity Builders and the International Ecocity Advisory Committee

Hubert Mazurek

Proyecto ECOCITY Manual para el diseño de ecociudades en Europa

Proyecto Ecocity - Philine Gaffron, Gé Huismans y Franz Skala

Este manual profundiza en los resultados de una línea de investigación europea sobre ecociudades en el proyecto « La ciudad del mañana ». Explica, partiendo de la experiencia, los proyectos emprendidos en paralelo en siete ciudades europeas, haciendo hincapié en cómo plantear, desarrollar y evaluar planes urbanos desde la perspectiva de la sostenibilidad.

Hubert Mazurek

— Villes