Documents de Politique Générale

L’Albanie est souvent considérée comme faisant partie de l’Europe de l’Est ou de l’Asie Centrale (comme pour la Banque Mondiale par exemple). Les documents référencés ne font donc pas souvent référence à la Méditerranée, ou aux spécificités méditerranéennes.
L’UNDP, dans le cadre des 50 ans en Albanie, a publié plusieurs articles et documents relatifs à la stratégie national et régionale contre le changement climatique.
Fleuve Drini (incluant UNECE) :Adaptation responses
Chauffage solaire - eau : Global solar water heating strategy
Rapport sur le Changement Climatique

General view of current policy - Albania

Enkelejda Malaj - Director of EU Integration and Projects
february 2013

This is a general summary of the climate change policies in Albania made in a conference in Belgrade, february 2013.

Hubert Mazurek

Country Assessment Report on Climate Change - Albania


Diagnostic made by UNDP on Albania
Albania joined the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1995 and has a status of non-Annex I country. Recently Albania joined the Kyoto Protocol as well. The Government of Albania has taken considerable steps toward the implementation of the UNFCCC, such as preparing the First National Communication (FNC), a Technology Needs
Assessment (TNA) and compiling the National Action Plan (NAP) to address climate change with UNDP/GEF support. Albania has also just started the preparation of the Second National Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC.

Hubert Mazurek

The First National Communication of the Republic of Albania to UNFCCC

Ministry of Environment

A general diagnostic of Albania in seven chapters :
- 1 - General Circumstances
- 2 - National Greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory
- 3 - GHG abatement analysis
- 4 - Vulnerability assessment and adaption options
- 5 - Climate Change national action plan (CCNAP)
- 6 - Public awareness, education and training on climate change
- 7 - Problems, constraints and needs

Hubert Mazurek

Albania’s Second National Communication to the Conference of Parties under the UNFCCC

Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Administration

A re-actualization of the first document of 2002

Hubert Mazurek

Climate Change in the West Balkans

ENVSEC, Zoï environment network

An interesting diagnosis on the Climat Change effects in the western Balkans, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.

Hubert Mazurek

National Adaptation Planning (NAP) to Climate Change in Albania

Republic of Albania
26 april 2016

National Adaptation Planning (NAP) to Climate Change in Albania
Framework for the Country Process

1. Executive Summary

NAP elaboration process : Mandated by the Prime Minister of Albania, the country developed the NAP document in close cooperation of relevant line ministries under the lead function of the Ministry of Environment (MoE) within the framework of the Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Climate Change during 2015 to 2016. The process received support by GIZ, UNDP and EU. The working process ensured ownership and participation of all relevant stakeholders in line with the NAP Technical Guidelines by UNFCCC.
The Knowledge on climate change impacts and vulnerabilities available in Albania is compa-rably good, resulting from the First (2002), Second (2009) and Third National Communications (2016) to UNFCCC. Besides, sector related and regional studies and projects provide important information on climate modelling, impact analysis, vulnerabilities and potential adaptation measures in Albania. The key vulnerabilities can be condensed as follows :

 Hydrological systems : Changing precipitation affects water resources and availability in terms of quantity and quality.
 Agriculture : Negative impacts of climate change on crop yields will be more common than positive impacts and result from changes of temperature, precipitation, hydrological systems (including irrigation), soil quality, erosion, and extreme events.
 Energy : The high share of hydropower implies impacts of changes in the hydrological systems on energy production.
 Health : Main impacts result from heat waves and vector increase through changes of tem-perature and precipitation.
 Social vulnerabilities : Inequalities and social vulnerabilities produced by uneven develop-ment processes aggravate risks from climate change.
 Climate related hazards and disasters : Increasing incidences of floods, droughts and other extreme events exacerbate other stressors, often with negative outcomes for infrastructure, production sectors and peoples‘ livelihoods, especially for marginalized communities.
 Ecosystems : Changes in climate cause impacts on natural systems, which can be observed already as of now along the coastal lagoons and estuaries as well as in river basins.

Quite in contrast to existing knowledge on impacts and vulnerabilities, committed action for reduc-ing vulnerabilities is still quite rare. A participatory Stocktaking Workshop on 19 February 2015 identified considerable gaps between existing adaptation approaches and needs. The NAP pro-cess should provide added value and assist in closing gaps.
The NAP process for Albania follows the following principles :

 NAP is understood mainly as long-lasting process for which this document provides the framework elements such as principles, goals, indicators, priority actions and process ele-ments.
 It provides a framework for targeted mainstreaming.
 It establishes an implementation framework mainly through priority actions supported through access mechanisms to finances, outreach and involvement, capacity development and moni-toring.
 It is a catalyst for participation and awareness rising.

An effective steering of the adaptation process will be ensured through outcome-oriented goals and indicators. They limit complexity by reduction on core indicators characterizing the adapta-tion progress and by building on existing goals and indicators, e.g. those defined in the NSDI. This NAP document identifies indicators, which, however, need further specification within the development of a concise Result-Based Monitoring System. Regarding the main results of the adaptation process at subject level,

the NAP defines 3 key objectives :
 Goal 1 : Damages through floods are reduced.
 Goal 2 : Agricultural resilience against floods is enhanced.
 Goal 3 : Water supply is secured despite impacts from climate change.

The time-line for achieving these goals is defined as 20 years (until 2035).
Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into relevant sector plans and policies is a key princi-ple for the NAP process in Albania. Mainstreaming activities have already been pursued for sev-eral sectors and for the overarching National Strategy for Development and Integration (NSDI). The EU accession process can be understood as a strong promoter for climate change adapta-tion, taking into consideration the mainstreaming approach of the EU Adaptation Strategy and within the IPA Process as stipulated in the EU-IPA II Strategy Paper. Mainstreaming should be organized as a long-term process which will address also future policy and plan developments.
The implementation framework of the NAP document is provided, inter alia, through a limited number of so called Priority Actions (or ‗umbrella projects‘). They do not intend to cover all nec-essary adaptation activities but concentrate on measures with strategic and leverage functions. They are sub-divided into overarching and steering actions as well as into selected sector-related actions of paramount importance for climate resilience in Albania :
Overarching Actions / implementation framework
 Steering of the adaptation process in Albania
 Overarching mainstreaming initiative
 Climate finance readiness
 Implementation monitoring system
 Adaptation information system for Albania (incl. Geographical Information System - GIS)
 Communication and outreach initiative
 Initiative for capacity development on climate change adaptation
Sector-wise and cross-sector strategic actions
 Priority actions for adaptation in agriculture
 Adapted farm production
 Integrated Water Resources Management
 Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the Coastal Plan
 Action Plan for Coastal Management
 Initiative for municipal adaptation
 Priority action for adaptation in tourism
 Upgrading civil defense preparedness and disaster risk reduction

Access to climate finances (domestic and international) is a prerequisite for implementing adap-tation measures. Albania has limited experiences with managing larger amounts of climate fi-nances. Therefore, a financing strategy is required, which might be supported through a Tech-nical Assistance project and/or through the GCF Readiness Programme. Great potentials for mainstreaming climate change into financing mechanisms result from the IPA process with its link to EU climate change processes. A considerable part of adaptation measures will be covered through domestic sources, in many times not even separately earmarked for adaptation : E.g., investments for road construction might cover also adaptation if road standards are adjusted to enhance resilience against heavy rain and flush floods.
Adequate administrative capacities, public awareness, information exchange, communica-tion and involvement mechanisms are important elements for effectively enhancing resilience against climate change in Albania. Necessary steps are being operationalized within an overarch-ing strategy for capacity development, outreach and involvement.
The process character of NAP with its long-term orientation requires result oriented monitoring, reporting and review. The main goals of this follow-up process includes effective steering of the process, incorporation of new knowledge and lessons learned as well as transparent information to stakeholders. The Ministry of Environment with support from all relevant line ministries will be responsible for establishing a monitoring system and will launch progress reports every 4 years. A review process is envisaged every 8 years to assess whether the goals and indicators of the NAP process and the overall approaches for their achievement are still in line with new developments in the country.

Kalterina Shulla

Identify existing CV&C monitoring program and available data

Plan Bleu
April 2013

Deliverable on activity :

Identify existing CV&C monitoring program and available data in each participating country, as well as options for data sharing in view of developing
a multicountry Information sharing portal.

Project title
“Integration of climatic variability and change into national strategies to implement the ICZM protocol in the Mediterranean”
Facilitated and reported on by Alexandre Borde, Plan Bleu’s consultant.
Contributor : Antoine Lafitte, ICZM programme officer, Plan Bleu.

Hosted by Albania, Tirana, April 3 & 4, 2013.

Plan Bleu

Diagnostic et politique sectorielle

Adaptation in Albania’s Energy Sector

ESMAP - World Bank

Climate Vulnerability Assessments
An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania’s Energy Sector
Country Energy Sector Vulnerability Assessments Program
Helping Countries Prepare an Effective Energy Sector Response

Hubert Mazurek

Protecting health from climate change in Albania

Ministry of Health


Strengthen health services and inter-sectorial system functions to improve their response to the impacts of climate change in an appropriate manner.
Encourage healthy, energy- efficient behaviors in all settings and provide information on opportunities for mitigation and adaptation interventions, with a particular focus on vulnerable groups through public awareness campaigns.

• Raise public awareness, improve education and build capacities among professionals on the possible effects of climate change on health.
• Adapt the information system to make it appropriate for detection of climate change related risks and evaluate in time their effects in health. Encourage research and innovation related to health and climate change.
• Integrate health prospective approaches and issues at all current and future climate change policies so to ensure potentiating of benefits and minimizing harms. Assure coordination between different stakeholders and different sectors to increase efficiency.
• Enhance the capacities of inter- sectorial monitoring systems to control increasing problems related to air pollution with special focus on particles and ozone.
• Increase the capacities, preparedness and coordination of the health system with other systems in dealing with expected health problems inflicted by heat waves and extreme cold weather.
• Improve collaboration and integration of health system into the national emergency structures responsible for floods and fires, landslides and other natural disasters inflicted by climate change
• Adapt and integrate surveillance and control systems for selected communicable diseases and vectors likely to be affected by climate change.
• Strengthen the health services and coordination of information systems for prevention and management of health problems inflicted by increasing exposure to pollens.
• Bringing together different sectors for setting up a system for monitoring and prevention of health problems
resulting from an increased ultraviolet radiation.
• Developing an action plan to improve energy efficiency in the health sector based upon the energy assessment

Hubert Mazurek

Climate Change and Agriculture - Albania

World Bank

A country note made by the World Bank

Hubert Mazurek

L'Espace Régional

Le DriniMati River Delta semble une région importante pour l’adaptation au changement climatique. On trouvera aussi quelques expériences réalisées en Albanie, dont le plan de gestion des risques d’inondation dans la région Nord de Shkoder.
Document relatif à la mitigation dans le Drini Rive, réalisé par l’UNDP.

Climate Change Adaptation Albanian experience for Coastal Areas

Eglantina Demiraj Bruci UNDP

A presentation made in the Seminar ‘Climate Change Adaptation’, 3-4 November, Tirana
With a focus on Coastal Areas

Hubert Mazurek

Climate Change Adaptation in the DriniMati River Delta and Beyond

Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Administration

Realized with the help of GEF and UNDP
To support Albania to take a more strategic approach to climate change adaptation and to ensure that the lessons from the DRMD project are learned and
mainstreamed across priority policies, sectors and programmes, seven Policy
Strategies are put forward for discussion :
1. The inclusion of specific reference to climate change adaptation in the National Strategy for Development and Integration 2013 - 2020 (NSDI).
2. The inclusion in the Environment Cross-Cutting Strategy (integral part of
the NSDI)of specific strategic priorities and policies that seek to support
climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Environment Cross-Cutting
Strategy should implement the policy imperative on climate change action
outlined in the NSDI.
3. Ensuring that the Environment Cross-Sector Strategy incorporates specific
climate change adaptation actions and priorities for adoptionand inclusion
within other sector strategies.
4. Establishment of a Climate Change Technical Working Group under the
auspices of the Working Group for Environment.
5. Ensuring that climate change adaptation is a specific focus area within
the environment sector fiche developed under IPA 2013 (Climate Change
6. Encouragement ofall regional and local government units, based on the experience of the DRMD project, to develop specific adaptation interventionsproject fiches to seek climate adaptation financing.
7. Continuing close working relationship with neighbouring countries and regional
organisations to build on experiences in developing integrated management
systems to address shared climate change adaptation challenges.

Hubert Mazurek

Flood Risk Management Plan - SHKODËR REGION

For Shkodër Region, Shkodër Prefecture, Shkodër Municipality, local areas of Ana e Malit, Bërdicë, Bushat, Dajç, Gur i Zi, Rrethina, Velipojë In cooperation with Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Water Administration
june 2015

From Foreword (Maxhid Cungu, Shkodër County Council) :

Considering our hydrological characteristics, floods in Shkodër County are highly
complex. Their consequences mostly affecting the western area of the county are equally complex.
After the heavy floods of 2010, Shkodër County adapted its regional development concept, including a dedicated action measure in terms of the work for minimizing flood effects.
Flood exceeds any institutional and administrative limits. It requires cooperation
between the bodies that are responsible for flood risk management. It requires our coordinated and harmonized actions.
We are aware of the concern we are facing as a county. Thousands hectares of land are affected by flood almost every year during the last four years. It is believed that climate changes will bring more extreme weather events, including a growing number of flood cases.
The scope of challenges we are facing can appear demanding but the action of
adaptation measures that is clearly described in this document, helps us undertake the first steps.
We will be jointly capable to mitigate this risk in the future only with close interinstitutional cooperation, a substantially improved approach of interventions /
infrastructure-related investments in the county territory and enhanced care for human capacity building.

Kalterina Shulla

— Villes