There are several versions of this action plan :
It is avery sectorial plan which includes the following sections :
There is not specifically urban part, but a chapter on buildings, devoted mainly to the question of energy optimisation. Two objectives are dedicated to the increase of capacities organisation, as well as in the development of renewable resources.
There is not adaptation of actions in regions or cities of Turkey.
This is the Habitat III Report for turkish urban policies, made by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, as a result of the Habitat III conference of United Nations (Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development).
Two chapters are developing a new agenda on urban planing and on the environment, including specific actions for climate change adaptation (chapter 3.15). Here are some extracts :
"Turkey officially became a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which has been in effect since 1994. After signing the convention, Turkey also signed Kyoto Protocol on 26th August 2009....
Climate Change National Action Plan was prepared and put into force in 2011 containing strategy principles and targets for 2011 and 2023 to control greenhouse emission and adaptation to climate change in order to ensure implementation of National Climate Change Strategy...
Turkey presented its Fifth National Declaration to UNFCCC in 2013, and is currently carrying out works for preparing Sixth National Declaration and First Two-Year Report. In combatting climate change under its national circumstances, it is cumulatively achieved a 1.4 billion tons of emission saving through measures between 1990 and 2007. The data of 2012 show that Turkey’s annual greenhouse gas emission corresponds to 439.9 million tons of carbon dioxide, and greenhouse gas emission per capita corresponds to 5.81 tons of carbon dioxide per annum.
Studies have been initiated to create an DzEcological Settlement Unitdz standard and to measure and reduce urban greenhouse gas in this context. A pilot settlement shall be established as a part of such action, and it will be completed in 2016....
In 2008, Directive on Energy Performance in Buildings was issued in order to set forth procedures and principles for effective and efficient use of energy in buildings, preventing energy loss and protecting the environment ; and the effects of energy sources on climate were brought to attention.
Furthermore, studies are being carried on regarding construction materials, building inspection and issuing energy identity card for buildings in this context. In 2011, energy identity card practice was initiated, and so far energy identity cards have been awarded to more than 34 thousand buildings, 32 thousand of which are new buildings...."
The urban politics in climatic change is so divided in sectoral plans : transport, energy, usage of the soil, etc.
Turkey recognizes that climate change represents a pressing and complex problem that can lead to serious environmental and socio-economic consequences and that it has become one of the most significant threats to the lives of future generations due to its long-term and crosssectoral effects. Efforts are necessary to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, the main cause of anthropogenic climate change, and to pursue multilateral international cooperation as nations seek to reduce impacts from and adapt to climate change.
As a result of decision 26/CP.7 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted in 7th Conference of Parties held in Marrakech in 2001, Turkey was removed from Annex II of the UNFCCC and State Parties were invited to recognize the special conditions which place Turkey in a different position from other Annex I countries. After this decision, Turkey
became a party to UNFCCC on 24 May 2004. Then, it became an official party to the Kyoto Protocol on 26 August 2009.
Within the context of the Kyoto Protocol, Turkey does not have emission reduction targets. Nevertheless, Turkey undertakes many activities toward decreasing emissions on issues like energy efficiency, promotion of renewable energy, transportation and waste management. In addition, Turkey makes active efforts to participate in voluntary markets for emission credits through emission reduction projects.
This is the Fifth National Communication (FNC) of Turkey since becoming a Party to the UNFCCC and it is the first one since becoming a Party to the Kyoto Protocol. This report was commissioned taking into consideration the situation in 2011.
This report is an assessment of the Climate Change Action Plan (2011-2023) (CCAP) finalized and shared by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization in July 2011. A monitoring and assessment of the actions specified in CCAP has been made for the period until June 2013.
"Turkey, who does not adapt greenhouse gas emission mitigation as her goal, rapidly enacts its carbon oriented growth model. For this reason, Turkey is reluctant for taking the steps numerous countries take into consideration with respect to climate change regime. Despite realizing the idea of preparing an action plan in 2011, as mentioned in the year of 2000, it is oberved that such action was published as an expression for its extention of current growth policies, and that the process is not participant or transparent."
Ce rapport est une évaluation du Climate Change Action Plan (2011-2023) (CCAP) finalisé et présenté par le Ministère de l’Environnement et de l’Urbanisation en juillet 2011. Une observation et une évaluation des actions spécifiées dans le CCAP ont été menées jusqu’en juin 2013.
"La Turquie, qui ne s’est pas fixé comme objectif l’atténuation de ses émissions de gaz à effet de serre, privilégie un modèle de croissance basé sur le carbone. Pour cette raison, la Turquie a des réticences à prendre des mesures similaires à celles que prennent de nombreux pays qui s’inscrivent dans la lutte contre le changement climatique. Malgré l’initiative de ce plan d’action en 2011, évoquée depuis 2000, nous observons que cette dernière s’inscrit dans l’extension des politiques de croissance actuelles, et que le processus n’est ni participatif ni transparent.
Energy efficiency (EE) is critical to help Turkey continue its trajectory of economic growth in a sustainable manner. The Government of Turkey recognizes this and has placed EE as a key component of its energy strategy and National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. Over the past 5-10 years, it has made considerable advances in establishing a strong policy and legal framework, creating a robust institutional set-up and developing programs to support EE implementation. Institutionally, the General Directorate of Electric Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) had been mandated with EE policy making, implementation and promotion since 1981, and an Energy Efficiency Coordination Board (EECB) was established under the 2007 EE Law to coordinate various EE policies, programs and other efforts. In November 2011, EIE was converted into the General Directorate for Renewable Energy (GDRE) and absorbed within the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). The World Bank conducted an EE institutional review in consultation with the Turkish Government with the objective to enhance their ability to more effectively manage EE policies and programs and thus contribute to helping meet its stated national EE targets. The review consisted of a detailed assessment of the current institutional set-up, including roles and responsibilities for EE in Turkey, along with a comparison with international experience and best practices. A final set of institutional options and recommendations are provided at the end of the report.
Solmaz Filiz Karabag, 2011. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities :
A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities, European Journal of Economics and Political Studies, 4(1), 113-141.
An interesting study on urban policies which give an analysis of the turkish action plan, and in Apendix C General Information of the Cities and the Sources of Strategic Plans.
O. BALABAN, M.SENOL BALABAN, 2015. Adaptation to climate change : barriers in the turkish local context, Tema, Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, European Climate Change Adaptation Conference (ECCA) 2015
Copenhagen, 12-14 May 2015. 21p.
ABSTRACT (from Journal)
Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges that we face today. A certain level of climate change is now unavoidable.
Along with mitigation efforts to curb further global warming, we have to take actions to adapt to the changing climatic conditions. Cities are on the front lines of climate change impacts. Therefore, the role of cities in climate change adaptation has been widely acknowledged in the last two decades. There are various obstacles that prevent city governments to develop adaptation policies. While some of these obstacles are universal, some of them are context-specific.
Based on the review of key policy documents and interviews with public officials, this paper focuses on analyzing the main barriers that prevent Turkish cities to develop and implement effective adaptation policies. The research results indicate that cities in Turkey face very
similar barriers with their international counterparts in adaptation policymaking. Among the main barriers in the Turkish local context are lack of institutional and technical capacity as well as awareness and coordination problems among actors of climate policy. Due to such barriers,
“municipal voluntarism”, which mostly leads to voluntary and spontaneous actions, is the prevailing approach to climate policy development in Turkish cities. A series of reforms should be enacted by the central government to help cities overcome the barriers to climate change
This document gives an interesting introduction to the situation of climate change in Turkey, with simulations fromn CIMP3 and CIMP5.
" In summary, the projected changes in the climate of Turkey for the future are as follows :
• Temperatures will increase ubiquitously in all seasons, but the increases will be higher in summer than in winter,
• Precipitation will decrease in the southern parts of Turkey. It may slightly increase in the northeastern parts,
• Wind potential will increase in the northwestern parts of Turkey. It may decrease in the eastern parts,
• Solar radiation will increase across the country, but the increases will be larger in the western parts,
• Sea level rise is expected to impact the low-lying areas of the river deltas and coastal cities,
• The changes in the climate parameters will likely increase the water stress,
• The landslide risk is high at the northeastern parts of Turkey. The projected increase in precipitation for this area could enhance the frequency and intensity of the landslides, and
• Overall, the intensity and duration of droughts and hot spells could increase in response to increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in Turkey."
The document presents then the possible impacts on life conditions, but the presentation is sectorial and doesn’t give elements for urban problematic.
A website has also been produced to communicate the results of this study : www.climatechangeinturkey.com