Documents de Politique Générale
L’Albanie est souvent considérée comme faisant partie de l’Europe de l’Est ou de l’Asie Centrale (comme pour la Banque Mondiale par exemple). Les documents référencés ne font donc pas souvent référence à la Méditerranée, ou aux spécificités méditerranéennes.
L’UNDP, dans le cadre des 50 ans en Albanie, a publié plusieurs articles et documents relatifs à la stratégie national et régionale contre le changement climatique.
Fleuve Drini (incluant UNECE) :Adaptation responses
Chauffage solaire - eau : Global solar water heating strategy
Rapport sur le Changement Climatique
General view of current policy - Albania
This is a general summary of the climate change policies in Albania made in a conference in Belgrade, february 2013.
Country Assessment Report on Climate Change - Albania
Diagnostic made by UNDP on Albania
Albania joined the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1995 and has a status of non-Annex I country. Recently Albania joined the Kyoto Protocol as well. The Government of Albania has taken considerable steps toward the implementation of the UNFCCC, such as preparing the First National Communication (FNC), a Technology Needs
Assessment (TNA) and compiling the National Action Plan (NAP) to address climate change with UNDP/GEF support. Albania has also just started the preparation of the Second National Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC.
The First National Communication of the Republic of Albania to UNFCCC
A general diagnostic of Albania in seven chapters :
1 - General Circumstances
2 - National Greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory
3 - GHG abatement analysis
4 - Vulnerability assessment and adaption options
5 - Climate Change national action plan (CCNAP)
6 - Public awareness, education and training on climate change
7 - Problems, constraints and needs
Albania’s Second National Communication to the Conference of Parties under the UNFCCC
A re-actualization of the first document of 2002
Climate Change in the West Balkans
An interesting diagnosis on the Climat Change effects in the western Balkans, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
National Adaptation Planning (NAP) to Climate Change in Albania
REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA
National Adaptation Planning (NAP) to Climate Change in Albania
Framework for the Country Process
1. Executive Summary
NAP elaboration process : Mandated by the Prime Minister of Albania, the country developed the NAP document in close cooperation of relevant line ministries under the lead function of the Ministry of Environment (MoE) within the framework of the Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Climate Change during 2015 to 2016. The process received support by GIZ, UNDP and EU. The working process ensured ownership and participation of all relevant stakeholders in line with the NAP Technical Guidelines by UNFCCC.
The Knowledge on climate change impacts and vulnerabilities available in Albania is compa-rably good, resulting from the First (2002), Second (2009) and Third National Communications (2016) to UNFCCC. Besides, sector related and regional studies and projects provide important information on climate modelling, impact analysis, vulnerabilities and potential adaptation measures in Albania. The key vulnerabilities can be condensed as follows :
Hydrological systems : Changing precipitation affects water resources and availability in terms of quantity and quality.
Agriculture : Negative impacts of climate change on crop yields will be more common than positive impacts and result from changes of temperature, precipitation, hydrological systems (including irrigation), soil quality, erosion, and extreme events.
Energy : The high share of hydropower implies impacts of changes in the hydrological systems on energy production.
Health : Main impacts result from heat waves and vector increase through changes of tem-perature and precipitation.
Social vulnerabilities : Inequalities and social vulnerabilities produced by uneven develop-ment processes aggravate risks from climate change.
Climate related hazards and disasters : Increasing incidences of floods, droughts and other extreme events exacerbate other stressors, often with negative outcomes for infrastructure, production sectors and peoples‘ livelihoods, especially for marginalized communities.
Ecosystems : Changes in climate cause impacts on natural systems, which can be observed already as of now along the coastal lagoons and estuaries as well as in river basins.
Quite in contrast to existing knowledge on impacts and vulnerabilities, committed action for reduc-ing vulnerabilities is still quite rare. A participatory Stocktaking Workshop on 19 February 2015 identified considerable gaps between existing adaptation approaches and needs. The NAP pro-cess should provide added value and assist in closing gaps.
The NAP process for Albania follows the following principles :
NAP is understood mainly as long-lasting process for which this document provides the framework elements such as principles, goals, indicators, priority actions and process ele-ments.
It provides a framework for targeted mainstreaming.
It establishes an implementation framework mainly through priority actions supported through access mechanisms to finances, outreach and involvement, capacity development and moni-toring.
It is a catalyst for participation and awareness rising.
An effective steering of the adaptation process will be ensured through outcome-oriented goals and indicators. They limit complexity by reduction on core indicators characterizing the adapta-tion progress and by building on existing goals and indicators, e.g. those defined in the NSDI. This NAP document identifies indicators, which, however, need further specification within the development of a concise Result-Based Monitoring System. Regarding the main results of the adaptation process at subject level,
the NAP defines 3 key objectives :
Goal 1 : Damages through floods are reduced.
Goal 2 : Agricultural resilience against floods is enhanced.
Goal 3 : Water supply is secured despite impacts from climate change.
The time-line for achieving these goals is defined as 20 years (until 2035).
Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into relevant sector plans and policies is a key princi-ple for the NAP process in Albania. Mainstreaming activities have already been pursued for sev-eral sectors and for the overarching National Strategy for Development and Integration (NSDI). The EU accession process can be understood as a strong promoter for climate change adapta-tion, taking into consideration the mainstreaming approach of the EU Adaptation Strategy and within the IPA Process as stipulated in the EU-IPA II Strategy Paper. Mainstreaming should be organized as a long-term process which will address also future policy and plan developments.
The implementation framework of the NAP document is provided, inter alia, through a limited number of so called Priority Actions (or ‗umbrella projects‘). They do not intend to cover all nec-essary adaptation activities but concentrate on measures with strategic and leverage functions. They are sub-divided into overarching and steering actions as well as into selected sector-related actions of paramount importance for climate resilience in Albania :
Overarching Actions / implementation framework
Steering of the adaptation process in Albania
Overarching mainstreaming initiative
Climate finance readiness
Implementation monitoring system
Adaptation information system for Albania (incl. Geographical Information System - GIS)
Communication and outreach initiative
Initiative for capacity development on climate change adaptation
Sector-wise and cross-sector strategic actions
Priority actions for adaptation in agriculture
Adapted farm production
Integrated Water Resources Management
Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the Coastal Plan
Action Plan for Coastal Management
Initiative for municipal adaptation
Priority action for adaptation in tourism
Upgrading civil defense preparedness and disaster risk reduction
Access to climate finances (domestic and international) is a prerequisite for implementing adap-tation measures. Albania has limited experiences with managing larger amounts of climate fi-nances. Therefore, a financing strategy is required, which might be supported through a Tech-nical Assistance project and/or through the GCF Readiness Programme. Great potentials for mainstreaming climate change into financing mechanisms result from the IPA process with its link to EU climate change processes. A considerable part of adaptation measures will be covered through domestic sources, in many times not even separately earmarked for adaptation : E.g., investments for road construction might cover also adaptation if road standards are adjusted to enhance resilience against heavy rain and flush floods.
Adequate administrative capacities, public awareness, information exchange, communica-tion and involvement mechanisms are important elements for effectively enhancing resilience against climate change in Albania. Necessary steps are being operationalized within an overarch-ing strategy for capacity development, outreach and involvement.
The process character of NAP with its long-term orientation requires result oriented monitoring, reporting and review. The main goals of this follow-up process includes effective steering of the process, incorporation of new knowledge and lessons learned as well as transparent information to stakeholders. The Ministry of Environment with support from all relevant line ministries will be responsible for establishing a monitoring system and will launch progress reports every 4 years. A review process is envisaged every 8 years to assess whether the goals and indicators of the NAP process and the overall approaches for their achievement are still in line with new developments in the country.
Identify existing CV&C monitoring program and available data
MODERATION OF THE NATIONAL WORKSHOP IN ALBANIA
Deliverable on activity 188.8.131.52 :
Identify existing CV&C monitoring program and available data in each participating country, as well as options for data sharing in view of developing
a multicountry Information sharing portal.
“Integration of climatic variability and change into national strategies to implement the ICZM protocol in the Mediterranean”
Facilitated and reported on by Alexandre Borde, Plan Bleu’s consultant.
Contributor : Antoine Lafitte, ICZM programme officer, Plan Bleu.
Hosted by Albania, Tirana, April 3 & 4, 2013.